14.0C 潍坊科技学院教务处

Writing-and-Speaking 2012 was the ninth hottest year on record, compounded by extreme weather it also saw the Artic sea ice melt at a record pace. The World Meteorological Organisation released a report at the end of 2012, that during the melting season, August to September, the Arctics sea ice cover was just 3.4 million square kilometres. A staggering 18 per cent less than the previous record low set in 2007. Michel Jarraud, Secretary-General of the World Meteorological Organisation said, "The year 2012 saw many weather extremes, such as droughts and tropical cyclones. Natural climate variability has always resulted in such extremes, but the physical characteristics of extreme weather and climate events are being increasingly shaped by climate change." With global sea levels are now about 20 centimetres higher than they were in 1880, that the extreme storms such as Hurricane Sandy are bringing more coastal flooding than they would have otherwise. Almost 300 people were killed in Octobers Hurricane Sandy and caused major destruction in the Caribbean before intensifying and causing tens of billions in damage and a further 130 deaths in the eastern United State. The deadliest cyclone of 2012, Typhoon Bopha, hit the Philippines in twice in December, sparking floods and landslides and killing more than 1,000 people. 2012 saw land and ocean surface temperature was estimated to be 0.45C above the average (14.0C). The rate of warming varies from year to year due to a range of factors, including the El Nino and La Nino weather phenomena which see warming and cooling, respectively, in the Pacific Ocean as well as volcanic eruptions. Despite 2012 beginning with a cooling La Nina in still ranked the amongst one of the warmest. This is a worrisome sign that the earth is continues to warm, the sustained warming of the lower atmosphere combines with the continued upward trend in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and the consequent increased radioactive forcing of the Earths atmosphere. Across most of the globe’s land surface areas, most notably North America, southern Europe, western Russia, parts of northern Africa and southern South America, the WMO noted above-average temperatures were observed. Whilst cooler than average conditions were found across Alaska, parts of northern and eastern Australia, and central Asia. Precipitation also varied, with drier-than-average conditions across much of the central United States, northern Mexico, northeastern Brazil, central Russia, and south-central Australia. Northern Europe, western Africa, north-central Argentina, western Alaska, and most of northern China were meanwhile wetter than average. An Australian owned company, Shift2Neutral was founded by Brett Goldsworthy with a vision of minimizing the negative impact of climate change to ensure a sustainable future. Shift2Neutral is a leader in the neutralisation of carbon emissions in the world by providing environmental auditing and solutions to create baseline objectives. They help neutralise the home, workplace, travel – whether it be by plane, train or automobile. Over the last few years they have been engaged by Governments, Corporates, Tribal Groups and Associations to help create their baseline objectives and to certify them carbon neutral. Shift2Neutral also invests in the latest alternative energy systems and are actively involved in a number of different community activities that aim to reduce the impact of negative climate change. For a more comprehensive overview as to how you can play a part in a greener future through renewable energy technologies investment and more visit the website for Shift2Neutral, today. About the Author: 相关的主题文章: